Overhaul gradually end , PVC late pressure is still large
PVC is a method of using a polymer material such as polyethylene substituted with a chlorine atom in a hydrogen atom. A thermoplastic resin obtained by polymerization of vinyl chloride in the role of initiator is a homopolymer of vinyl chloride. PVC is one of the world's largest suppliers of plastic products, cheap, widely used in PVC resin is white or light yellow powder.
PVC products on the market and the real estate market have a very close relationship. In the real estate buildings, extensive use of PVC material, which profiles, doors and windows, plastic pipes and other hardware products the most common. In the North American market, for example, construction of housing with more than 75% of PVC accounts for the total, while domestic used in pipes, profiles, PVC doors and windows and other areas accounted for about 65% of overall demand.
Recently, PVC pressure drop, failed to break yesterday's high and Bollinger rail lines. Spot market still no new ideas at all, the cost of supporting PVC shipping companies are still reluctant to cut prices, but local shipping prices are loose. Market trader cautious orders, according to the volume and cost of shipping a narrow positive price adjustment, the overall stability based. 5 types electric stone East market since an offer in 6030-6200 yuan / ton; South mainstream since the mention in the 6130-6190 yuan / ton, Tianye, Golden Road expected slightly higher. Futures prices are basically close to the spot price, but with three, April overhaul of the operating rate gradually over the last five months of gradually approaching the 60% level, than in April increased by nearly 5%, especially Northwest PVC business leader start of production in the late supply will produce a more important influence on the late pressure is still large. Technically, the daily level of bearish market is still in range, the operation or weak shocks ideas treat shock interval 6020-6150. Days of operation can be carried out in 6110 for the long and short line operation, tomorrow operating range concern 6065-6110.
The Application of Vinyl Acetate
Vinyl Acetate is mainly used for organic synthesis, mainly for synthetic vinylon, also used in adhesives and coating industry. Also can be used for synthetic resin fibers, pour oil is also used as a thickener and binder intermediates.
Vinyl Acetate is the main raw material for the manufacturer of synthetic vinylon. Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate by itself, or with sub-monomer, to get Polyvinyl Alcohol PVA, Ethylene-Vinyl Copolymer (EVA), Vinyl Acetate-Vinyl Chloride Copolymer (EVC), Vinyl Acetate-Acrylonitrile fibers, Vinyl Acetate-Acrylic Acid Ester Copolymer, and they all have important industrial uses, and widely used as adhesives, architectural coatings, textile finishing agents and sizing agents, paper reinforcing agents and for the manufacture of safety glass. Vinyl Acetate and ethanol, bromine reaction of Bromide Diethyl Acetal, this is drug methimazole intermediates.
As an extremely versatile organic, synthetic polymer adhesive monomer. VAM can be used for the manufacture of Polyvinyl Acetate emulsion (white latex), EVA copolymer resin and ethylene manufactured and VAE emulsion, and vinyl chloride copolymer emulsion manufacture of chlorine and chlorine vinegar resin vinegar. It is also the main raw material for the production of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Vinylon. Manufactured by solution or emulsion adhesives, emulsifying agents, finishing agents, paints, paper coatings, cement additives, anti-corrosion coating of food and food packaging film, a chewing gum base, cosmetic additives and so on.
Vinyl Acetate is the raw material of Vinyl Acetate Monomer and Polyvinyl Alcohol Resin. Also generate copolymer to produce water treatment chemicals, rubber, coatings, adhesives and other fine chemicals and other monomers.
Acetic acid ethenyl Ester in organic chemistry's main application on enzymatic acetyl transfer reactions. Vinyl Acetate also has many other responses, but some can be replaced by other better reagents, some need to be further explored.
Vinyl Acetate also can be used in the organic synthesis, mainly used in the synthesis of Vinyl, used in adhesives and coatings industries.
The role of Niobium
To give full play to the role of Niobium, must by the alloy design and process control, so that the size and volume fraction of precipitates of the NbC to achieve the best match. Solubility through Nb and C product curve, can calculate the precipitation amount at a given temperature NbC. In order to make full use of the potential of physical metallurgy of niobium, must be in the thermal deformation before reheating temperature enough that a certain amount of Nb (C, N) solid solution, a solution in the austenite of Nb.
Effects of Nb in steel must be considered together with the interaction with the other elements. Control of alloy design and process for micro alloy specific, is mainly composed of the carbide, nitride and carbonitride dissolution and precipitation solubility product determined by the law of. The dissolution and precipitation of micro alloying elements Nb, V, Ti in steel is different.
The main effect of Niobium in steel is as follows:
Niobium with tripe role to influence the mechanical properties of steel: Refined in the thermal mechanical processing of grain, the transition temperature decreased (Ar3) and precipitation strengthening.
Grain refinement is the only way to simultaneously improve the strength, toughness and ductility.
Niobium grain refinement effect is mainly in a hot working process, recrystallization delay or prevent the finishing stage, elongation and high density dislocations in the austenite has high ferrite nucleation rate, the lower the transition temperature, soluble NB can simultaneously improve the ferrite nucleation rate and reduce the grain grow up speed, composite this can lead to transformation of fine grain structure typical. The grain refinement to improve the toughness of the steel is very favorable fatigue, because fatigue cracks usually mesh iron along the original austenite grains of ferrite produced and extended. Control of composite micro alloying design and reasonable production process is the most effective way to improve the comprehensive properties of steel.
The application of Niobium in steel industry
Because the metal Niobium has high melting point, high strength, heat resistance, good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section of good performance, it has become the indispensable material in modern high technology industry. Niobium is not only a kind of excellent structural materials, but also is a kind of special functional materials. The content is 50 % to 70 % standard grade Niobium iron raw material is mainly used in steel industry.
Niobium is the leader in micro alloying element in steel. We only need to add about 0.03 % to 0.05 % of Niobium, and the steel yield strength can be improved by more than 30 %. Niobium steel can also be controlled by strain induced precipitation and cooling speed, and to realize the precipitation distribution, adjusting the level of toughness of steel in a wide range. So adding Niobium can not only improve the strength of steel, but also can improve the toughness of steel.
The application of Niobium in the steel production mainly is high strength low alloy steels. Adding trace Niobium, can make its strength increased. This kind of alloy steel is one of the main development directions of the world’s iron and steel industry. The growth rate of it is about 2 times that of the ordinary steel growth rate. The high strength low alloy steel containing Niobium high strength is with good toughness, good welding performance. It has been widely used in automobile, bridge, oil pipelines, gas pipelines, oil drilling, oiling drilling platform at sea, railway, civil construction steel and so on. And the automobile industry and the petroleum natural gas transmission pipeline is the most important market.
The application of Niobium in the steel production is also can be used in the high strength high alloy steels. This kind of steel containing alloying elements is more than 7 % the amount of alloy elements, including stainless steel, high speed tool steel, heat resistant steel, high strength steel, low temperature steel, pipe, bar and so on. Most of the forging, sheet, strip and cast form for gas turbine blade, super high tube, bed tools aero engine and lathe tools and so on.
At present, one of the most important applications of containing Nb is stainless steel welding electrodes. In addition, in recent years, the application in iron and steel production in the development of some new products and new technology may also widen the application of Niobium in steel industry. Such as adding Niobium gapless impurity steel, stainless steel for auto mobile exhaust system, micro alloy forging steel containing Niobium, and add Niobium in steel hot rolling technology application can be possible.
The main purpose of Tungsten
Tungsten and its alloys are widely used in electronic industry of electric light source used in the manufacture of all kinds of lighting bulbs, tube filament is used with a sagging resistance of doped tungsten wire.
Doped tungsten rhenium is added by the rhenium content low rhenium tungsten alloy silk with high rhenium content of tungsten rhenium thermocouple wire manufacturing, its very wide temperature range (0 to 2500), a good linear relationship between temperature and thermoelectric emfs, fast temperature reaction (3 seconds), the price is relatively cheap, is measured in hydrogen atmosphere of ideal thermocouple.
Tungsten wire is not only triggered a revolution in the lighting industry, but also because of its high melting point, on the premise of not losing its mechanical integrity, become a kind of hot electron ion emitter, such as scanning electric (a microscopic) mirror and transmission of electricity (a microscopic) mirror electronic source is also used to make the X-ray tube filament in X-ray tube, the tungsten filament produced by electron is accelerated, the collision of tungsten and tungsten rhenium alloy anode, and out of the anode emit x-rays to produce X-ray tungsten filament produced by the electron beam energy is very high, so be spots on the surface of the collision of the electron beam is very hot, it is used in most of the X-ray tube in the rotating anode.
The density of Tungsten 19.25 g/cm 3, about the iron (7.87 g/cm 3) and 2.5 times more likely to periodic system is one of the heaviest metal elements based on the characteristics of tungsten manufacture high-density tungsten alloy (i.e., high density tungsten alloy) has become an important application field of tungsten using liquid phase sintering process, at the same time to join in the tungsten powder nickel iron copper and small amounts of other elements, can be made into high density tungsten alloy.
High strength and high modulus PVA fiber
Polyvinyl Alcohol has the potential to obtain high strength fibers of flexible chain polymer. And according to the main chain of the Polyvinyl Alcohol macromolecule bond energy theory, compared to the calculated value of the goods the highest strength of Polyvinyl Alcohol fiber is only 10% of that in the theory of strength, the highest modulus amount of 30% of the theoretical limit. Therefore, the development of high strength and high modulus Polyvinyl Alcohol fiber is very necessary.
Fiber fracture microscopic mechanism is divided into two types: the molecular chain slip and molecular chain rupture. Fiber strength mainly depends on the number of the fiber cross-section of the macromolecular chains, chemical bonding energy and the uniformity of chain stretch. Therefore, molecular weight, molecular chain orientation and full height straight crystallization manufacture high strength and high modulus fibers to become the three basic theories conditions.
Due to the good hydrophilicity, adhesion and impact resistance as well as the processing of easy dispersion and other properties of the high strength and high modulus Polyvinyl Alcohol fiber, it has a wide range of application in industrial, construction and other fields. High strength and hihg modulus Polyvinyl Alcohol fibers can be used in the construction of concrete reinforcement and so on, which is used to enhance the cement has many advantages, such as:
1. Good mechanical properties, which can improve the toughness and impact strength of building materials.
2. Good acid and alkali resistance, suitable for various grades of cement.
3. Good dispersion, construction materials can keep for a long time smooth surface, without peeling phenomenon occurred.
4. Temperature and cold bending properties of cement and cement block.
5. The permeability of concrete is low, can prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel bar, so not easy weathering concrete not easily affected by climate.
Because of high strength and high modulus PVA fiber has unique properties of glass fiber in the building materials can become a better application of alternative materials.
High strength and high modulus PVA fiber reinforced materials can also be used for rubber or tire cord, you can also use its tensile strength and corrosion resistance and other properties for the production of fishing nets, ropes, canvas, conveyor belts and so on.
If you have the demand for high strength and high modulus Polyvinyl Alcohol fiber or other products of Polyvinyl Alcohol, please contact us:
Molybdenum Trioxide is a kind of colorless or pale yellow transparent rhombic crystals. The density of it is 4.692g/cm3, the melting point of it is 795℃, the boiling point of it is 1155℃. Turns yellow when heated, when the temperature becomes cold, it will recovered. Even in the case of lower than the melting point, also has a significant sublimation phenomenon. Molybdenum Trioxide is insoluble in water, and can be soluble in ammonia water and alkali. And it can obtain molybdate and molybdic acid salt after reacting with alkali solution and many metal oxide reaction. The weight percentage of MoO3 in high pure Molybdenum Trioxide is usually 99.8% to 99.99%. It is the basic raw material of the preparation of molybdenum powder, and it also can be used as raw material for the production of high purity reagent. Molybdenum calcine and industrial Molybdenum Trioxide powder are the basic raw materials for the production of high pure Molybdenum Trioxide.
1. Electrochromic and its application: Electrochromic refers to the material in the applied voltage, due to the reason of the electric field, leading to the material optical absorption or scattering characteristics change, followed by its color changes, and this change in color reversibly in response to a change in electric field. And the change of color can be reversibly response to the change of the electric field, the MoO3 color is through Mo variation caused by optical absorption, electron and ion and injected into the interstitial coloring.
2. The smoke suppression and flame retardant and its application: Molybdenum oxide have certain flame retardant and smoke elimination performance, but in the actual application. If it should be used for single formula, not only added to increasing cost, and comprehensive performance of cable material may also be damaged. But if the composite system composed of these compounds, can be through the interaction of them, which can improve the flame retardancy and smoke, but also can save a flame retardant agent, and can keep the good performance of cable material and reduce cost.
3. The catalytic properties and its application: The mechanism of the Molybdenum Oxide as a catalyst is, in a specific wavelength light irradiation, the surface of the excited electron hole pairs are generated, oxidation - reduction reaction occurs in the proper medium, so as to decompose organic pollutants.
If you have the demand for Molybdenum products with a competitive price and high quality, please contact us!
The properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol
The filling density of polyvinyl alcohol is about 0.2 to 0.48 g/cm3, refractive index of it is 1.51 to 1.53. The melting point of polyvinyl fiber is difficult to directly. Because in the air, the decomposition temperature of it is lower than the melting temperature. The melting temperature is measured by the indirect methods is 230 ℃.
Different rules of polyvinyl alcohol with different melting point, the S - PVA (syndiotactic) the highest melting point, A PVA (random) times, I - PVA (isotactic) minimum. The glass transition temperature of about 80 ℃ polyvinyl alcohol. The glass transition temperature are not only related to conditions of determination, but also on its architecture. For example, with polyvinyl alcohol syndiotacticity increases, the glass transition temperature increased slightly. Increase the residual amount of polyvinyl acetate and water content, glass transition temperature will decrease.
There are a large number of para hydroxy on the polyvinyl alcohol backbone. And there are many similar to cellulose in its chemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl alcohol can be a role with a variety of acid, anhydride, acyl chloride, generate the corresponding polyvinyl alcohol eater. But the reaction ability to respond is lower than general molecular alcohols. The etherification reaction of polyvinyl alcohol with esterification reaction easily. Etherification reaction of polyvinyl alcohol, intermolecular forces weakened, the strength of the product, the softening point and the hydrophilicity reduced.
The addition of a small amount of boric acid in the polyvinyl alcohol water solution, its viscosity will increase obviously, such changes with the pH value of the medium close. When the pH value of the medium is alkaline, boric acid and polyvinyl alcohol have intermolecular reaction, the solution viscosity increased, resulting in the formation of gel. Aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol and sodium hydroxide reaction, the viscosity increased speed faster than adding boric acid. Therefore, using sodium hydroxide solution as polyvinyl alcohol spinning coagulant.
In the presence of an acid catalyst, polyvinyl alcohol and aldehyde acetal reaction can occur. The acetalization reaction can be carried out in a homogeneous phase, but also in non homogeneous phase. The acetal group distribution but homogeneous reaction product obtained is uniform, the acetal compound strength, elastic modulus and heat resistance are reduced. The heterogeneous reaction, in appropriate conditions, due to the uneven distribution of acetal groups, and occurred mainly in the amorphous region, so the influence on the mechanical properties of the small, and the heat resistance is increased.
If you have the demand for polyvinyl alcohol with competitive price and high quality, please contact us:
Molybdenum is a kind of chemical element, chemical symbol is Mo, its atomic number is 42, is a kind of gray transition metal. Pure metal molybdenum is silvery white, very hard. Add a small amount of molybdenum to steel, hardened steel. Molybdenum is a very important nutrients to plants, were found in some of the enzyme. Molybdenum - 99 is one of the radioactive isotope of molybdenum, he used for the preparation of technetium - 99 in the hospital. Technetium - 99 is a radioactive isotope, patients after imaging can be used for internal organs. Used for this purpose of molybdenum - 99 is usually by alumina powder absorption after stored in the smaller containers. When molybdenum - 99 decays generated technetium - 99, when required to remove the technetium - 99 from the container to the patient. 10.2 g/cm3 density of molybdenum. Melting point is 2610 ℃. The boiling point of 5560 ℃. Valence + 2, + 4 and + 6, stable price of + 6. Molybdenum is a kind of transitional element of molybdenum powder, easy to change its oxidation state, in the body of the REDOX reaction plays a transfer the role of electronics. Under the form of oxide, molybdenum is likely to be in a state of + 6 price. Although it is likely the first reduction during electron transfer to + 5 valence state, but after the reduction of enzyme was also found in other oxidation state of molybdenum. Molybdenum is xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and the components of sulfite oxidase, thus known as the essential trace minerals in the human body and animal and plant.
Molybdenum is a kind of metal elements, usually used as additive in alloy and stainless steel. It can enhance the strength of the alloy, hardness, toughness, weldability and also can enhance the high-temperature strength and corrosion resistance. Molybdenum reserves on the earth is less, its content accounts for only 0.001% of the earth's crust weight, molybdenum total reserves of about 15 million tons, mainly distributed in the United States, China, Chile, Russia, Canada and other countries. Our country's proven molybdenum metal reserves of 1.72 million tons, foundation reserves of 3.43 million tons, ranking second in the world after the